Comparison Between Egyptian and Mesopotamian Religions and Beliefs!

The religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians were the dominating influence in the development of their culture. The Egyptian faith was based on a collection of ancient myths, nature worship, and innumerable deities. Sumerian lives were spent serving the gods in the form of man-made statues. There was no organized set of gods; each city-state had its own patrons, temples, and priest-kings. The Sumerians were probably the first to write down their beliefs, which were the inspiration for much of later Mesopotamian mythology, religion, and astrology. Sumerians believed that the universe consisted of a flat disk enclosed by a tin dome. While the Mesopotamian’s didn’t have anything quit to scale with the pyramids, they did use and build ziggurats for religious purposes.

Both civilizations were centered on religion. Egypt believed in many gods. The gods Mesopotamia believed in tended to be absolute rulers to whom the people owed total devotion. In both civilizations religious leaders were given very high status and held in high regard. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two religions that believed in monotheism. Both Egypt and Mesopotamia were polytheistic, that is, they believed their worlds were ruled by more than one god. Both civilizations believed that the gods created them. Both cultures also believed that they themselves were created for the purpose of serving their gods. Both worshipers took their names from the numerous gods and the cults that honored the deities, and priests in both religions were no special clothes, and made daily offering in the temples and held annual festivals open to public.

Mesopotamian religion saw humans as the servants of the gods, who had to be appeased for protection. Egyptians believed that the gods created all humans but were also controlled by the principle of maat, or order. Unlike followers of Mesopotamian religion, the Egyptians had a strong belief in the afterlife, which they expressed by building elaborate tombs such as the pyramids. The Sumerian afterlife involved a descent into a gloomy netherworld to spend eternity in a wretched existence as a Gidim (ghost). Egyptians believed that their gods had created Egypt as a sort of refuge of good and order in a world filled with chaos and disorder. The major god for much of Mesopotamia was the sky god Enlil; later th e worship of Enlil was replaced by the worship of the Babylonian god Marduk. For Egyptians, Amen-Ra was the most powerful deity, chief of the pantheon. Statues of winged bulls were a protective symbol related to the god Sin Mesopotamia, while the ankh, a kind of cross with a loop at the top, was a prominent representation of life in ancient Egypt. The Enuma Elish tells the Mesopotamian story of creation and explains how Marduk became the chief of the gods. The Egyptian Book of the Dead was a guide for the dead, setting out magic spells and charms to be used to pass judgment in the afterlife. Ancient Nippur was the site of the chief temple to Enlil, while Babylon was the location of Marduk’s sanctuary. Thebes and the temple complex of Karnak were home to the worship of Amen- Ra. In the modern world the remains of these early religions can be seen in Egypt’s pyramids, tombs for the pharaohs, and in Mesopotamia’s ziggurats, temples to the gods. The New Year’s Festival was a major event in Mesopotamian religion, while Egypt’s most important festival was Opet. Because Egypt was the “gift of the Nile” and generally prosperous and harmonious, Egyptian gods tended to reflect a positive religion with an emphasis on a positive afterlife. In contrast, Mesopotamian religion was bleak and gloomy. Ancient Mesopotamian prayers demonstrate the lack of relationships with gods and goddesses who viewed humans with suspicion and frequently sent calamities to remind everyone of their humanity. Such was the message found in the Gilgamesh Epic.

Although the religions of both civilizations shared many similarities, the differences were vast. The most notable ones are the importance and belief of afterlife and the relationship between Gods. Because of these differences, we believe, the civilizations were different because in early times, civilizations revolved around their beliefs and values but unfortunately, there was an end to these great civilizations.

Hiking Boots – Parts And Construction

When shopping for a pair of hiking boots, it is important to know how they are made. No, you do not need to know how to make your own, but you have to understand what goes into them and how it affects the comfort and durability – the overall quality – of the hiking boots. In this article I will describe the parts of a hiking boot, what they are made of, and how they come together to form the ideal hiking boot for you.

Like any shoe, a hiking boot consists of an upper and a sole joined together by a welt and with an inlet at the front covered by a tongue, and the whole is lined with various pads and cushions. I will discuss each of those parts in detail, in terms of what they are made of and what to look for in various types of hiking boots.

Sole and Welt

Let's start at the bottom. The soul of the hiking boot is the sole.

Soles are usually made of synthetic rubber in varying degrees of hardness. A harder sole will last longer, but generally will have poorer Traction on hard surfaces (such as bare rock) and will provide less cushioning. A softer sole gives you the cushioning you need for long hikes and the transaction you need on rough ground, but it will wear out faster.

Manufacturers have made their trade-offs in choosing the materials to make their boots out of. The final choice is up to you when you choose which boot to buy. If you expect to do most of your hiking on soft surfaces, such as desert sand or bare soil, you might lean more towards harder soles. But most of us hike on fairly rugged trails with a good deal of bare rock, and we need the traction of a softer sole.

Inside the sole is a shank. It is a stiffening structure, either fiberglass or steel, that prevails the sole of the boot from twisting and that provides arch support. Shanks may be only three-quarter or half-length. Hiking shoes generally have no shank at all, deriving all their stiffness from the molded rubber sole. Good day-hiking boots may have a full-length fiberglass shank. High-quality backpacking boots will give you the choice of fiberglass or steel. It will depend on how strong you need your hiking boots to be, and how heavy.

Look for deep, knobby tread. Deep cuts in the sole allow water and mud to flow out so you can get traction. "Fake" hiking boots, designed to look like hiking boots but not to perform like them, may have thinner soles and shallow tread. Working boots also may have shallow tread, and they generally have harder soles than hiking boots have.

The welt is the connection between the sole and the upper. Virtually all hiking boots these days are glued together rather than sewn. If you are buying a very expensive pair of backpacking boots, give preference to a sewn welt. Boots with a sewn welt will be easier to resole when the original sole wears out. For hiking shoes or day-hiking boots, when the sole wears out, the upper is not worth salvaging, either, so a glued welt is just fine.

Upper

The upper of the hiking boot brings warmth, protects the sides of your feet from rocks and brush, and repels water. It must also allow your feet to "breathe," so that moisture from perspiration will not build up inside the boots and cause blisters.

Uppers of hiking boots are usually at least partially made of leather. High-quality backpacking boots are often made of full-grain leather (leather that has not been split). Lighter boots may be made of split-grain leather (leather that has been split or sued on one side), or a combination of split-grain leather with various fabrics.

Fabrics that are combined with leather are usually some type of nylon. Heavy nylon wears almost as well as leather, and it is much lighter and cheaper than leather.

In any hiking boot, especially those made of combinations of leather and fabric, there will be seams. Seams are bad. Seams are points of failure. Seams are points of wear, as one panel of the boot rubs against another. Seams are penetrations that are difficult to waterproof.

The uppers of backpacking boots are sometimes made of a single piece of full-grain leather with only one seam at the back. This is good, for all the reasons that seams are bad, but it is expensive.

You're going to have to deal with seams. But as you shop for hiking boots, look for customer reviews that mention failure or undue wearing of the seams, and avoid those brands.

Inlet and Tongue

There are two things to look for in the inlet and the tongue:

1. How the laces are attached and adjusted

2. How the tongue is attached to the sides of the inlet

The inlet may be provided with eyelets, D-rings, hooks, and webbing, alone or in combination. They each have these advantages and disadvantages:

* Eyelets: Simplest and most durable way to lace a boot. Not so easily adjusted.

* D-rings: Easier to adjust than eyelets, more durable than hooks. More failure-prone than eyelets. (They can break, and they can tear out of the leather.)

* Hooks: Easiest to adjust of all lace attachments. Subject to getting hooked on brush, or bent or broken in impacts with boulders, main cause of breakage of laces.

* Webbing: Cause less chafing of laces, slightly easier to adjust than eyelets, slightly more durable than D-rings. More failure-prone than eyelets.

The most common lace attachment of any hiking boot is eyelets below ankle-level and hooks above. You may see eyelets all the way up, as in classic military-style combat boots, or a combination of either D-rings or webbing with hooks.

The attachment of the tongue is a critical factor in how waterproof the hiking boots are. Provided the leather and / or fabric and seams of the upper are waterproof, water will not get into the boots until it gets higher than the attachment point of the tongue.

Most hiking shoes and day-hiking boots have the tongue attached all the way to the top. If the tongue is not fully attached, consider carefully wherever you will need that extra inch or two of waterproofing.

High-rise backpacking boots have the tongue attached only partway up, but that still reaches higher than most day-hiking boots. It's difficult to get the boot on and off if the tongue is attached very high.

Linings and Pads

There are many pieces that go into the lining and padding of a hiking boot, but two in particular you need to pay attention to:

1. The sole lining

2. The scree collar

The sole lining must be appropriately cushioned. You want a firm, durable surface in immediate contact with your socks, but enough cushioning below that to absorb impact.

The scree collar is a cushion around the top of most hiking boots. It enables you to pull the boots tight enough to keep out loose rocks ("scree") but without chafing against your ankle and Achilles tendon. This is the thickest and softest cushion in the whole hiking boot. It must be soft enough to conform to your ankle and Achilles tendon as they move, and still keep close enough contact with your leg to keep the rocks out.

Very high hiking boots, such as military-style combat boots, may have no scree collar at all. The height of the boot is what keeps the rocks out.

Throughout, the lining and padding of the hiking boots must be thick enough to provide warm, durable enough to last, and smooth enough that it will not cause chafing and blisters.

Conclusion

So, these are the things you need to pay attention to when going a pair of hiking boots. Be prepared to compromise, and pay attention to which features are really important to the style of hiking you intend to do.

An Introduction to Affiliate Marketing For Beginners

As the global economic situation continues to deteriorate, more and more people are beginning to look to the internet, seeking a way to make themselves a little extra income. There are many possible ways to make money on-line; arguably the most established form is through affiliate marketing.

Most people wrongly assume that affiliate marketing is a new buzz phrases cooked up by internet users, which is entirely incorrect. Affiliate marketing has been around for a long time, anyone who is familiar with the concept of commissioned based sales will already understand what affiliate marketing is all about.

o Definition of affiliate marketing – Quite simply, affiliate marketing deals with the promotion of a third party product, in exchange for a percentage of the proceeds from any successful sales. In the past these sales would have been tracked on paper, the internet changed all that. Modern affiliate marketers have very little involvement in the allocation and payment of contracts, as everything is now automated. Instead they are free to spend their time on the actual marketing of the affiliate products.

o Choosing a program – The most common way that an internet marketer will attempt to generate an income stream through affiliate marketing is very straightforward. They will sign up with one of the major affiliate product networks, the most prominent being ClickBank. Once they have an account set up they will try to find suitable products that they can market, from within the affiliate network. Once they have located a product that they feel would be successful, they will begin the marketing process.

o Marketing process -The marketing process can consist of either paid forms of advertising such as PPC (Pay Per Click), or it can consist of free forms of advertising, such as writing articles and publishing them to large article directories. The article contains a tracking link to an affiliate product, anyone reading the article may be likely to click on the link, and hopefully make a purchase.

o Website created – Quite often the affiliate marketer will actually create and operate a website, which will be used to attract visitors. Upon the website the affiliate marketer will place advertisements and offers for a range of affiliate products. Once again, when a visitor clicks on a banner or a text link, and proceeds to purchase the product, the site owner will receive commission from the sale.

Overall, affiliate marketing is an exciting and challenging way to attempt to generate an on-line income.

Get Light and Colorfully Dressed for the Summer

Did you realize that food, clothes and shelter, the basic requisites of humans, are decided by the regional climate and culture, customs and beliefs? Now that the torpid heat of summer is fast descending, it is time to rethink the wardrobe and bring out the flimsy clothing. Though you wish you could, you cannot really wear tees and shorts for every occasion! Some formalities need to be observed, no matter what the weather.

Goodbye to the darker shades

In keeping with the riot of colorful flowers blooming everywhere, light and bright colors are in. Are men and boys going to wear those delicate shades of yellow and green, blue and orange? Yes, and why not? You certainly will not wear the darker shades and certainly not black. That might turn out to be dangerous with excessive heat and active, busy lifestyles out in them could result in a stroke. Don’t forget to keep sufficiently hydrated with a variety of liquids.

Put away those heavy costumes and boots

It is time for the dry-cleaned woolens to rest before they are back in action later after you have perspired for months. While you sweat it out now and take to ACs and coolers, it is a relief to get away from those heavy suits, the footwear, and the warm underclothing. While those late night parties in the cold were enjoyable, it is a different carefree attitude now. Let go for the moment and forget those stories of the homeless freezing to death on snowy nights after sleeping on the pavement.

Cotton and silks will do the trick

Whether shirts or trousers, kurta sets with waistcoats, casual or formal wear, cotton will see you through the summer. If you didn’t try it before, give it a splash of color like the spectrum that comes from the light. Office wear may be more subdued with grays and browns, though traditions are changing. Plain shades or printed designs are very much in vogue and elevate feelings, bringing pep and zing to the productivity.

Silks can attain an ocean of fantasy and strike the right note in cementing relationships or making a fashion statement. Were you thinking of the ornate parties on official occasions where you meet up with some very privileged guests? Don’t forget to put on your best manners and speak the right things.

Working out

Those sessions at the gym may require a change of attire. Tees and shorts should be good enough, but make sure that you possess several sets if gyms happen every day. The diehards will do it one way or the other.

An accessory range

Don’t forget the caps to keep the fiery sun at bay while footwear often speaks the right notes. Light shoes perhaps of the sandal type will let the feet breathe. Make sure that the bag you carry to the office or the club is suitably light. Keep enough copies of the underclothing to facilitate a daily change. Perfumes and roll-ons also need be those airy types that speak the language of the winds and the sails. Fly through the weeks and months one day at a time like you never did before, with all the light colors of the rainbow on board. Never make it a dull day.